Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises SMEs to grow and prosper. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka , as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks supply-side and SMEs demand-side.
The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka , but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.
Background: Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus.
Their clinical feat The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from to Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill SLGh.
The study recorded 35 behavioral events i Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between and We recorded bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa.
The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.
Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities.
On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods.
One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a to meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants.
In an island nation such as Sri Lanka , where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean.
The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income. Malaria in Sri Lanka : one year post-tsunami. One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December , and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low.
Malaria incidence has decreased in as compared to in most The malaria incidence aggregated for the whole country in followed the downward trend that started in However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.
In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in , significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the tsunami.
Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka , which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders.
Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers mental health now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community.
A total of mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka.
Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between years of age participated in four focus group discussions.
Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems.
Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters.
Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations.
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A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services. Full Text Available Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka , although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka.
Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and 4 to58 individuals. The mean number of species per flock was 6. Differentbird species used different heights within flocks. Keywords: Mixed-species flock, Nuclear species, Abundance, Foraging flocks. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka. In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology CKDu has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease CKD in rural Sri Lanka.
It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water.
Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established.
No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.
This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48 Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks.
Eloquent bodies: conflict and ritual in northern Sri Lanka. It is increasingly apparent that hostilities continue in the aftermath of war and conflict, where presuppositions of peace and safety are rarely reflected on the ground. This collapse developed slowly over a period of several years, beginning with cautious optimism before descending into deep pessimism with increasingly high levels of violence brought about by the absence of any real progress. Efforts to rebuild and reintegrate both rural and urban communities in the north of the country have had to take place within an atmosphere of silence, suspicion and a marked escalation towards the renewed outbreak of war.
This article, following sixteen months of fieldwork in the northern Jaffna peninsula, examines how Tamil youths - many of whom were imprisoned and tortured during the war - have transformed a well-known ritual that has seen a dramatic increase since occupation of the far north by government troops in The ritual, previously an act of devotion to a popular Tamil god, Murugan, has transformed into a demonstration of strength and youthful challenge.
This article examines how toleration of ritual pain can be contrasted with the pain and suffering of war, and articulated not only for the self, but also for the entire community.
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Voormalige kindsoldaten in Sri Lanka , een onopgeloste erfenis van een bloedig conflict. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. The Indian Tamils, who It possesses unrivalled geographical advantages.
British involvement in Sri Lanka was strategically disadvantageous for. The analysis was carried out for the period from to By and large, our analysis reveals that the tourism has a positive impact on economic growth in Sri Lanka both in the short-run and long-run. Hence, it is crucial for the Sri Lankan government to achieve unification and stability by focusing on political solutions t Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka.
Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. Full text: Many studied have been conducted on the nutritional status of children in Sri Lanka. Other studies have gone into details of different aspects of malnutrition in children In the Demographic and Health Surveys, 6, children have been studied in the survey and for all indices of nutrition, -2SD or below from the median are taken as the affected group.
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Comparing the data from onwards shows that there is a general reduction in both stunting and underweight. In both males and females stunting was present in All indices shows that the in the Colombo metropolitan area the nutritional status is much better than in rural and estate sectors. In all sectors stunting and underweight has improved when compared to the data however weight for height i.
Another study conducted in the same year demonstrated that children of employed mothers are not receiving adequate amount of energy.
cosvokindvervo.gq Another study conducted in showed the association between parents ability to read and understand written material, father's habit of smoking and or alcohol consumption, frequent quarrels and family disputes with the three. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data.
Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the pregnant women studied, Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3, Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, Loss of productivity was The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.
The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy. Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17—19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems.
Conclusions and recommendations. Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka. Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants.
Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Theses from to available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators.
A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading ' Sri Lanka ' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during to All research publications from CMJ during to were also scrutinized. From the international journal survey, publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically.
Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal. Medical support to Sri Lanka in the wake of tsunamis: planning considerations and lessons learned. The specific mission was to provide immediate relief to the affected population of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, to minimize loss of life, and to mitigate human suffering.
A person health care team deployed to the northern province of Jaffna and provided medical assistance to that chronically underserved and acutely overstressed region. In doing so, the medical team learned many important lessons, including five of particular value to planners of similar relief operations in the future. Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka 's primary rice-farming zone.
Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka , this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields.
Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.
Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka. We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December in the south of Sri Lanka , facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible.
This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset Table 1 is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc.
In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset Luo et al. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka : Buddhist perspectives.
Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available.
One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. Full Text Available The banking sector is the backbone of the entire financial economy of a country.
Natural or man-made disasters can lead to data loss which in turn can cause millions of dollars of money lost. This study focuses on disaster recovery practices in commercial banks in Sri Lanka. From our preliminary findings, it was concluded that commercial banks only have ad-hoc disaster recovery standards and practices, as there is no standard framework available.
Fourteen 14 banks were selected for data collection and relevant authorities were interviewed. The results were translated as qualitative observations to understand the best practices. Similarly, international standards, compliance requirements of the central bank, and existing researches were used to develop a disaster recovery practice framework. The proposed framework was then validated for its efficiency and usefulness among commercial banks and found to be acceptable by the banking industry.
Full Text Available We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December in the south of Sri Lanka , facing toward the north Indian Ocean. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka , using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select students.
Response rate was Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: Mean age of starting to smoke was The tobacco products most used were cigarettes In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette P The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon. Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies.
Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women.
These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents.
Upon return to Sri Lanka , former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. Full Text Available The way the foreign policy of China has evolved in recent decades to consolidate its interests could be an object lesson to other countries.
In this context, this paper attempts to examine the growing China- Sri Lanka strategic engagement in general and particularly under President Rajapakse regime, which actually transformed the bilateral ties. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province NCP of Sri Lanka , by randomly selecting CKDu patients and age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area.
An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka. We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content.
Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.
Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka. This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka 's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel.
Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed. Distribution pattern of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter pfcrt gene haplotypes in Sri Lanka Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka.
Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter pfcrt; codons Among 24 samples Full Text Available There are species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic.
However out of the species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area.
However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the Sri Lankan stock market in terms of asset pricing models. In order to achieve this goal this research evaluates the Fama and French three-factor model and a behavioural asset pricing model to investigate which framework is better suited for security valuation in Sri Lanka.
Accordingly findings reveal that small stocks with low book-to-market equity generate high realized returns. But results indicate that superior returns on these stock Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between Sri Lankans living in Oslo and Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower.
Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo- Sri Lanka Channel during winter?
But due to a lack of any direct in situ measurements, it is not clear whether any part of this current that flows through the Indo- Sri Lanka Channel ISLC Some studies on liver and rumen flukes of bovines in Sri Lanka. Keywords: liver and rumen flukes, bovines, influence of climate, Sri Lanka. Panjab Univ. The epidemiology,. Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear.
I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…. Main Report. Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka , and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed.
Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to pro In , the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but….
Money Laundering Trafficking of Illegal Arms Characterization of Sri Lanka rabies virus isolates using nucleotide sequence analysis of nucleoprotein gene. Thirty-four suspected rabid brain samples from 2 humans, 24 dogs, 4 cats, 2 mongooses, I jackal and I water buffalo were collected in in Sri Lanka. Total RNA was extracted directly from brain suspensions and examined using a one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR for the rabies virus nucleoprotein N gene.
Rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in different regions of Sri Lanka were genetically homogenous. Sequences of nucleotides nt -long RT-PCR products obtained from 16 of 27 samples were found identical. The Sri Lanka isolates under study formed a specific cluster that included also an earlier isolate from India but did not include the known isolates from China, Thailand, Malaysia, Israel, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Nepal, Philippines, Japan and from several other countries.
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